
Computer Graphics
Qualifying Examination Reading List

This is the Summer 2005 Graphics Qual reading list.
It has been updated. This older version is provided as a reference
and pointer to resources only!
Students interested in taking the Graphics Qualifying exam should have taken
a solid introductory class (such as CS559), and at least one graduate level
class that deals with a broad set of issues (such as Computer Animation or
Rendering).
The aim of this list is to elucidate a set of topics that
any graphics researcher should understand. Most of the list consists of
specific papers, typically chosen because they introduce or describe
an insight that is of particular importance. Other papers are of such
significance that anyone working in the field should know of them.
When reading the papers, it is most important to identify the key
insight in the paper. In many cases, it is also vital to understand what the
paper offered over prior art, and how it relates to other approaches to
the same problem.
This document is broken into two sections. The Topic Areas section lists
the areas and papers students should have particular knowledge of. It is
followed by a bibliography.
Topic Areas
Core Topics
Students are expected to have a broad knowledge of computer graphics at the
level of an undergraduate course. Therefore, the syllabus for such a class is
required knowledge for this exam. A complete undergraduate course topics list
is available for CS559 (in two parts here and here).
These topics can be reviewed using a combination of textbooks and material
available on the graphics class web pages. Some specific suggestions
are at the bottom of this page.
Underlying Knowledge
Some areas outside of computer graphics are essential to the field, and a
student should have a working knowledge of these at the undergraduate level.
In addition to core issues in computer science, students should understand
basic linear algebra and numerical methods. For any of these
topics, any basic text will do.
Signal Processing
Basic signal processing issues and techniques, such as the sampling of
reconstruction of functions, are vital to computer graphics. Many of the
papers in the reading list assume an understanding of signal processing.
Rotations and Quaternions
The representation of rotations comes up in many areas of 3D graphics.
Students should understand the important techniques.
 [Shoemake:1985:ARW]
The classic introduction
to Quaternions. Singlehandedly responsible for introducing the graphics
community to them, and to the issues in rotations.
 [Grassia98]
Introduces the exponential map to the graphics community, but
(more importantly) looks at the issues in choosing a rotation
representation.
Miscellaneous
Image Processing and Manipulation
Students should have a knowledge of the following beyond what is typically
presented in an undergraduate level course.
Image Processing
Unfortunately, most undergraduate texts (and courses) only touch on this key
foundation of computer science. The references listed here are suggestions to
gain a sufficient knowledge. Image Processing is a huge field. For graphics,
students must understand the main intuitions and mathematical bases, such as
sampling and reconstruction, filtering, and frequency domain methods.
Image Compositing
Image Warping
This is an important enough topic to warrant its own heading. The Wolberg
survey article is highly recommended (and possibly sufficient for control
issues). Students should understand the BierNeeley method, and why it
is important. Low level image sampling issues are essential to understand.
 [Beier:1992:FIM]
This paper (and the method it introduces)
is important because it is the first highly successful warping technique.
What differentiates it from what came before is that it is designed to be
useful by artists.
 [Wolberg:1998:IMA]
A good survey of the field, with a
focus on George's own work (which is important, so its warranted).
 [Wolberg] Less useful for techniques (it is
dated), but good for intuitions and issues.
Multiresolution image methods
Students need to be familiar with multiresolution image methods,
such as Laplacian Pyramids, MIPMAPS and Wavelet image decompositions.
These topics are adequately covered in a variety of readings, here we
list some of the original sources.
Modeling
Most texts provide adequate coverage of the main techniques, such as parametric
curves and patches, implicit surfaces, and polygonal meshes. The newer ones
even introduce more current topics such as subdivision surfaces.
Representations
Geometric Simplification
 [Garland:1997:SSU]
Quadric Error Simplification:
An important and significant technique used widely in practice.
 [Cohen:1999:CAA]
SIGGRAPH course notes from Jonathon Cohen.
 [Hoppe:1996:PM]
Progressive Meshes: The first technique for continuous level of detail.
Rendering
Photorealistic Rendering
The primary reference for this area is
Sillion and Puech.
 Radiometry  the definition and measurement of physical quantities.
 The Radiosity equation and its solution.
 Ray tracing methods for nondiffuse illumination.
 [Kajiya:1986:TRE]
Kajiya's formulation of the rendering equation and its
interpretation as multiple bounces of light rays.
 [Cook:1984:DRT]
Distributed Ray Tracing.
 [Heckbert:1990:ART]
Caching radiance on surfaces, and the introduction of the regular
expression description of light paths.
 [Jensen:1995:PMI]
Photon map techniques.
Realtime Rendering
 [Watt and Policarpo] has an good survey
in Chapter 12 covering hardware rendering and multipass techniques.
 [OpenGL] Details on hardware APIs for
realtime rendering with OpenGL, and is studded with algorithms for
achieving various special effects.
 Programmable hardware paper from Nvidia, SIGGRAPH 2001
ImageBased Rendering
Stylized Rendering
Visibility
Animation
Basic Animation Principles and Concepts
Simulation Techniques
Motion Capture and Editing
Seminal Systems
Students should have enough of a sense of the history of the field, and be
aware of some key systems and why they are significant. While the exact details
of these systems are not important, an appreciation for why they were important
is.
Bibliography
General Textbooks
Understanding of the basic material of visual computing is expected of all
students. Many of the topics from papers are also discussed here.
While a student is not expected to have read all of these, at
least one general text should be reviewed. These books are not
explicitly referenced in the topic list.
 Donald Hearn and M. Pauline Baker. "Computer Graphics,
C Version (2nd Edition)", Prentice Hall, 1996
 This book has a solid discussion of many important topics, but
lacks a discussion of more modern topics. Its section on modeling is
particularly good.
 Peter Shirley. "Fundamentals of Computer Graphics", A.K. Peters, 2002.
 A very new book that works thourhg a range of topics both basic and
advanaced. It's coverage is patchy in some areas.
 Alan Watt and Fabio Policarpo. "3D Games: Realtime
Rendering and Software Technology", Addison Wesley, 2001.
 The graphics aspects of this book are up to date and quite readable.
Some topics are missing (since this really isn't a graphics text), and much
of the book is about nongraphics topics. An excellent resource for
realtime rendering.
 Alan Watt. "3D Computer Graphics", AddisonWesley,
1999
 This book is intended as a first course graphics textbook.
 Foley, van Dam, Feiner and Hughes. "Computer Graphics:
Principles and Practice (2nd Edition)", Addison Wesley.
 While this book is a classic, and is the standard reference, it is not an
easy book to learn from. It's treatment of many topics is dismal (at best).
It is very comprehensive, albeit dated.
Specialty Textbooks
These books are either more specialized or primarily concerned with other
things, but are the best resources for many graphics topics.
 Woo, Neider, Davis, and Shreiner. "OpenGL
Programming Guide", Addison Wesley, 1999.
 This book is more than just documentation of the OpenGL library: it also
does a good job of explaining the underlying concepts.
 Gomez and Velho. "Image Processing
for Computer Graphics." Springer Verlag, 1997
 A nice textbook. A bit gratuitously mathematical, but much more
readable and relevant than the typical engineering text. The whole book
is a bit overkill for preparing for the qual.
 Sillion and Puech,
"Radiosity and Global Illumination," Morgan Kaufman, 1994.
 A standard textbook for global illumination, with full and careful
definition of all the physical quantities, terms, and equations.
 Wolberg. "Digital Image Warping".
IEEE Press.
 The Image Warping methods are a bit dated, but its a very readable
discussion of image processing. Out of print, unfortunately.
 Richard Parent.
"Computer Animation: Algorithms and Techniques". MorganKaufman, 2001.
 A nice, rigourous treatment of the fundamental topics. The book covers a
smattering of advanced topics. What it covers in general it seems to cover
well.
Notes
[Hanrahan:1996:SP]
Pat Hanrahan's course notes on signal processing.
Gleicher's notes on signal processing.
Papers

[Akeley:1988:HPR]
Kurt Akeley and Tom Jermoluk. "HighPerformance Polygon
Rendering", Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 88), 22(4),
pp. 239246 (August 1988, Atlanta, Georgia).

[Baraff:1998:LSI]
David Baraff and Andrew Witkin. Large Steps in Cloth Simulation,
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual
Conference Series, pp. 4354 (July 1998, Orlando,
Florida). Addison Wesley. Edited by Michael Cohen. ISBN
0897919998.

[Beier:1992:FIM]
Thaddeus Beier and Shawn Neely. "Featurebased image
metamorphosis," Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 92), 26
(2), pp. 3542.

[Berman:1994:MPA]
Deborah F. Berman and Jason T. Bartell and David
H. Salesin. Multiresolution Painting and Compositing, Proceedings
of SIGGRAPH 94, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference
Series, pp. 8590 (July 1994, Orlando, Florida). ACM Press. Edited
by Andrew Glassner. ISBN 0897916670.

[Brooks:1986:WAD]
Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.. "Walkthrough  A dynamic graphics
system for simulating virtual buildings", Proceedings of 1986
Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 921 (October
1986).

[Burt:1983:AMS]
P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson. A multiresolution spline with
application to image mosaics, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2 (4),
pp. 217236 (October 1983)

[Catmull:1972:ASF]
Edwin E. Catmull. "A System for Computer Generated Movies",
Proc. ACM Annual Conf., pp. 422431 (August 1972).

[Chen:1995:QVI]
Shenchang Eric Chen. "Quicktime VR  An ImageBased Approach to
Virtual Environment Navigation", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 95,
Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pp. 2938

[Cohen:1999:CAA]
Cohen, Jonathan. "Concepts and Algorithms for Polygonal Simplification",
SIGGRAPH 99 Course Tutorial #20: Interactive Walkthroughs of Large
Geometric Datasets. pp. C1C34.

[Cook:1984:DRT]
Cook, Porter, Carpenter, "Distributed Ray Tracing", SIGGRAPH
84.

[Cook:1987:TRI]
Cook, Carpenter, Catmull, "The Reyes Image Rendering
Architecture", SIGGRAPH 87.

[DeRose:1998:SSI]
Tony DeRose and Michael Kass and Tien Truong. Subdivision Surfaces
in Character Animation, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, Computer
Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pp. 8594 (July
1998, Orlando, Florida). Addison Wesley. Edited by Michael
Cohen. ISBN 0897919998.

[Debevec:1996:MAR]
Paul E. Debevec, Camillo J. Taylor and Jitendra Malik. "Modeling
and Rendering Architecture from Photographs: A Hybrid Geometry
and ImageBased Approach", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer
Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pp. 1120 (August
1996, New Orleans, Louisiana).

[Debevec:1997:RHD]
Paul E. Debevec and Jitendra Malik. "Recovering High Dynamic Range
Radiance Maps from Photographs", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97,
Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series,
pp. 369378

[Funkhouser:1992:MOL]
Thomas Funkhouser, Carlo Sequin and Seth Teller, "Management of
Large Amounts of Data in Interactive Building Walkthroughs",
Proceedings 1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, 1992, pp
1120.

[Funkhouser:1993:ADA]
Thomas Funkhouser and Carlo Sequin, "Adaptive Display Algorithm
for Interactive Frame Rates During Visualization of Complex
Virtual Environments", SIGGRAPH 93, pp 247254

[Garland:1997:SSU]
Michael Garland and Paul S. Heckbert. Surface Simplification Using
Quadric Error Metrics, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97, Computer
Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pp. 209216
(August 1997, Los Angeles, California). Addison Wesley. Edited by
Turner Whitted. ISBN 0897918967.

[Gleicher:1998:RMT]
Michael Gleicher. Retargeting Motion to New Characters,
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual
Conference Series, pp. 3342 (July 1998, Orlando,
Florida). Addison Wesley. Edited by Michael Cohen. ISBN
0897919998.

[Grassia98]
F. Sebastian Grassia. Practical Parameterization of Rotations
Using the Exponential Map, Journal of Graphics Tools, 3(3),
pp. 2948 (1998). ISSN 10867651.

[Gooch:1998:ANL]
Amy Gooch, Bruce Gooch, Peter Shirley and Elaine Cohen, "A
NonPhotorealistic Lighting Model for Automatic Technical
Illustration", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, pp 447452,
1998.

[Gortler:1996:TL]
Steven J. Gortler, Radek Grzeszczuk, Richard Szeliski and Michael
F. Cohen, "The Lumigraph", Computer Graphics: Proceedings of
SIGGRAPH 96, pp 3142.

[Guskov:1999:MSP]
Igor Guskov and Wim Sweldens and Peter
Schröder. Multiresolution Signal Processing for Meshes,
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 99, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual
Conference Series, pp. 325334 (August 1999, Los Angeles,
California). Addison Wesley Longman. Edited by Alyn Rockwood. ISBN
0201485605.

[Haelberli:1990:PBN]
Paul Haeberli,
"Paint
by Numbers: Abstract Image Representations", Proceedings of
SIGGRAPH 90, pp 207214, 1990

[Heckbert:1989:FOT]
Paul Heckbert,
"Fundamentals of Texture Mapping and Image Warping," Master's thesis,
UCB/CSD 89/516, CS Division, U.C. Berkeley, June 1989.

[Heckbert:1990:ART]
Paul S. Heckbert. "Adaptive Radiosity Textures for Bidirectional
Ray Tracing," Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 90), 24
(4), pp. 145154.

[Hoppe:1996:PM]
Hugues Hoppe. Progressive Meshes, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96,
Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series,
pp. 99108 (August 1996, New Orleans, Louisiana). Addison
Wesley. Edited by Holly Rushmeier. ISBN 0201948001.

[Jensen:1995:PMI]
Henrik Wann Jensen and Niels Jørgen Christensen. "Photon maps in
bidirectional Monte Carlo ray tracing of complex objects",
Computers & Graphics, 19 (2), pp. 215224 (March 1995).

[Kajiya:1986:TRE]
James T. Kajiya. "The Rendering Equation", Computer Graphics
(Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 86), 20(4), pp. 143150.

[Kowalski:1999:ARO]
Michael A. Kowalski, Lee Markosian, J.D. Northrup, Lubomir
Bourdev, Ronen Barzel, Loring S. Holden and John F. Hughes, "ArtBased
Rendering of Fur, Grass and Trees", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH
99, pp 433438, 1999.

[Lasseter:1987:POT]
John Lasseter. Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D
Computer Animation, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH
87), 21(4), pp. 3544 (July 1987, Anaheim, California). Edited by
Maureen C. Stone.

[Leffler:1990:TMM]
Samuel J. Leffler and William T. Reeves and Eben F. Ostby. "The
Menv Modelling and Animation Environment", Journal of
Visualization and Computer Animation, 1(1), pp. 3340.

[Levoy:1996:LFR]
Marc Levoy and Pat Hanrahan, "Light Field Rendering", Computer
Graphics: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, pp 3142.

[Litwinowicz:1997:PIA]
Peter Litwinowicz, "Processing
Images and Video for an Impressionist Effect", Proceedings of
SIGGRAPH 97, pp 407414, 1997.

[Luebke:1995:PAM]
David Luebke and Chris Georges, "Portals and Mirrors: Simple, Fast
Evaluation of Potentially Visible Sets", Proceedings of the 1995
Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, 1995, pp 105106

[Maciejewski:1990:DWT]
Anthony A. Maciejewski. Dealing with the IllConditioned Equations
of Motion for Articulated Figures, IEEE Computer Graphics &
Applications, 10 (3), pp. 6371 (May 1990).

[McMillan:1995:PMA]
Leonard McMillan and Gary Bishop, "Plenoptic Modeling: An
ImageBased Rendering System", Computer Graphics: Proceedings of
SIGGRAPH 95, pp 3946.

[Meier:1996:PRF]
Barbara J. Meier, "Painterly
Rendering for Animation", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, pp
477484, 1996.

[Perlin:1985:AIS]
Ken Perlin. An
Image Synthesizer, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH
85), 19 (3), pp. 287296 (July 1985, San Francisco,
California). Edited by B. A. Barsky.

[Porter:1984:CDI]
T. Porter, T. Duff, "Compositing Digital Images," Computer
Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH), 18:3, pp. 253259, 1984.

[Reynolds:1987:FHA]
Craig W. Reynolds. Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed
Behavioral Model, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 87),
21(4), pp. 2534 (July 1987, Anaheim, California). Edited by
Maureen C. Stone.

[Sederberg:1986:FDO]
Thomas W. Sederberg and Scott R. Parry. FreeForm Deformation of
Solid Geometric Models, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH
86), 20 (4), pp. 151160 (August 1986, Dallas, Texas). Edited by
David C. Evans and Russell J. Athay.

[Seitz:1996:VMS]
Steven M. Seitz and Charles R. Dyer, "View Morphing: Synthesizing
3D Metamorphoses Using Image Transforms", Computer Graphics:
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, pp 2130.

[Shoemake:1985:ARW]
Ken Shoemake. Animating Rotation with Quaternion Curves, Computer
Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 85), 19 (3), pp. 245254 (July
1985, San Francisco, California). Edited by
B. A. Barsky. (warning: the original paper had some errors  try
to find the corrected one!)

[Smith:1996:BSM]
Alvy Ray Smith and James F. Blinn. "Blue Screen Matting,"
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual
Conference Series, pp. 259268.

[Stam:1998:EEO]
Jos Stam. Exact Evaluation of CatmullClark Subdivision Surfaces
at Arbitrary Parameter Values, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98,
Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series,
pp. 395404 (July 1998, Orlando, Florida). Addison Wesley. Edited
by Michael Cohen. ISBN 0897919998.

[Strauss:1992:AO3]
Paul S. Strauss and Rikk Carey. An objectoriented 3D graphics
toolkit, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 92), 26 (2),
pp. 341349 (July 1992, Chicago, Illinois). Edited by Edwin
E. Catmull. ISBN 0201515857.

[Sutherland:1963:SAM]
I. E. Sutherland. "Sketchpad  A ManMachine Graphical
Communication System", Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer
Conference, (May 1963).

[Teller:1991:VPF]
Seth Teller and Carlo Sequin, "Visibility Preprocessing for
Interactive Walkthroughs", SIGGRAPH 91, pp 6170

[Winkenbach:1994:CPI]
Georges Winkenbach and David H. Salesin, "ComputerGenerated
PenandInk Illustration", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94, pp
91100, 1994

[Williams:1983:PP]
Lance Williams. Pyramidal Parametrics, Computer Graphics
(Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 83), 17 (3), pp. 111 (July 1983,
Detroit, Michigan).

[Witkin:2001:PBM]
Andrew Witkin. Physically Based Modelling. SIGGRAPH 2001 Course Tutorial.

[Wolberg:1998:IMA]
George Wolberg. "Image morphing: a survey," The Visual Computer,
14(89), pp. 360372 (1998). Warping]

[Zeleznik96]
Robert C. Zeleznik, Kenneth P. Herndon and John
F. Hughes. "SKETCH: An Interface for Sketching 3D Scenes",
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual
Conference Series, pp. 163170